baffin island history

Baffin Island is geographically and geologically a continuation of Labrador, from which it is separated by Hudson Strait. Baffin Island ( Inuit name, Qikiqtaaluk ), French: Île de Baffin) in the territory of Nunavut is the largest member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The Baffin Mountains are a mountain range running along the northeastern coast of Baffin Island and Bylot Island, and are part of the Arctic Cordillera. Female polar bears may travel 10–20 km (6–12 mi) inland to find a large snow bank where they dig a den in which to spend the winter and later give birth. Exploration and discovery of the Chidliak Kimberlite Province, Baffin Island, Nunavut: Canada’s newest diamond district. "Dietary Nutrient Profiles of Canadian Baffin Island Inuit Differ by Food Source, Season, and Age.". It is largely uninhabited, with the exception of a few small coastal settlements. Baffin Island has been inhabited for over 3,000 years, first by the pre-Dorset, followed by the Dorset, and then by the Thule people, ancestors of the Inuit, who have lived on the island for the last thousand years. The highest peak is Mount Odin, with an elevation of at least 2,143 m (7,031 ft), although some sources say 2,147 m (7,044 ft). This epic 20 day voyage aims to circumnavigate Baffin Bay and explore the first section of the Northwest Passage to Beechey Island. Bjarni appears to be the first European to see Baffin Is… The diagram for Baffin Island shows the days per month, during which the wind reaches a certain speed. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi) and its population is about 11,000 (2007 estimate). In March, the female polar bears usually deliver 1 to 3 cubs. Arctic Bay Adventures on Baffin Island. Many of the plants in the park grow in clumps to create their own warmer "microclimate" to survive the harsh Arctic conditions. The Arctic island is believed to have been visited by Norse explorers in the 11th century and sighted by the British explorer Martin (later Sir Martin) Frobisher during his search for a Northwest Passage (1576–78). It is located in the region of 70° N and 75° W.[4], It was named by English colonists after English explorer William Baffin. This National Park homes the flowers like mountain avens, campion, papaver, saxifrage, shrubs like dwarf birch, heather, willow. The meetings were also meant to allow community members from Pond Inlet, Sanirajak, Igloolik, Clyde River and Arctic Bay—the five communities on northern Baffin Island most affected by the mine—to participate in the process. Chances to visit cultural sites and learn about the local animals and vegetation Barbeau Peak, on northern Ellesmere Island , is the territory’s highest point, reaching an elevation of 8,583 feet (2,616 metres). edit History. Shortly after he started at the Field Museum he joined the 1927-1928 Rawson-Macmillan Expedition to Baffin Island and Labrador. Iron-ore deposits have also been found in the island's north. Though vegetation is extremely sparse, animal life consists of the powerful; barren-ground caribou, polar bear, arctic fox, arctic hare, lemming, and arctic wolf. In summer, ringed seals keep to a narrow territory about 3 km (2 mi) along the shoreline. [4], Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, is located on the southeastern coast. Baffin was Born In The North in 1979. They were out at sea two half-days. An interesting example is the Tibetan Plateau, where the monsoon creates steady strong winds from December to April, and calm winds from June to October. Well, literally it means that the brand was born in "The Great White North", Canada; and product that we still manufacture today in Stoney Creek, was first setup for production in the late 1970s. Arctic hare, along with lemmings, are a primary food source for the island's fox and wolf populations. Why go to Baffin Island? The ice-capped mountains are some of the highest peaks of eastern North America, reaching a height of 1525-2146 meters above sea level. Around the time of the building of Egypt’s great pyramids, 7,500 kilometres away, early settlers on Baffin Island were discovering and learning how to survive in an environment so harsh that no foreigner has succeeded in colonizing it since. [46], Sea ice surrounds the island for most of the year and only disappears completely from the north coast for short, unpredictable periods from mid- to late June until the end of September. If pack ice moves in, they may venture out 4-10 km (2½-6 mi) and follow the pack ice, dragging themselves up on an ice floe to take advantage of the sun. Its population of approximately 11,000, three-quarters of which is Inuit, reside in small coastal settlements. Similarly, Qikiqtarjuaq is situated on Broughton Island, which is located near the northern coast of the Cumberland Peninsula. Kimmirut, Baffin Island. [27][28] The Saga of Erik the Red, 1880 translation into English by J. Sephton from the original Icelandic 'Eiríks saga rauða': They sailed away from land; then to the Vestribygd and to Bjarneyjar (the Bear Islands). Baffin Island lies in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago just west of Greenland and is the world’s fifth largest island. 16 Aug 2019 | Arctic History Many people now recognize that Vikings were the first Europeans to reach the new world but did you know that it was Baffin Island that they first saw as they left Greenland. BASE jumping, a sport involving the use of a parachute or the sequenced use of a wingsuit and parachute to jump from fixed objects—with the parachute unopened at the jump. These whales migrate along the coast of Baffin Island as some head north to the feeding grounds in the Davis Strait between Greenland and Baffin Island, or into the Hudson Strait or any of the bays and estuaries in between. Ottawa. A long-running debate disputes whether the Vikings taught indigenous peoples in the Canadian Arctic how to spin yarn when the invaders arrived in the region around 1,000 years ago. Photo courtesy Royal Ontario Museum A prominent Ottawa archaeologist credited in some circles with rewriting the history of Vikings in Canada has accused the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto of “disparaging” her widely publicized research. Relics, including yarn and a carved face mask discovered near Kimmirut, point to European contact with the Inuit of Baffin Island as early as 1,000 years ago. This vast, remote region is a pure and beautiful landscape of icebergs, sea cliffs, and mountains, and home to a wealth of wildlife, including whales and polar bears. The coastlines of West Greenland and Baffin Island are simply stunning with towering mountains, glaciers and icebergs and are rich in wildlife and marine life, Inuit culture and history. Pell, J., Grütter H., Neilson S., Lockhart, G., Dempsey, S. and Grenon, H. 2013. Stirling, Ian, Wendy Calvert, and Dennis Andriashek. It is believed that people of the Dorset culture arrived on Canada's Cumberland Peninsula around 1500 B.C.E.. Baffin Island (Inuit name, Qikiqtaaluk), French: Île de Baffin) in the territory of Nunavut is the largest member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Pond Inlet has civil twilight from December 16 to December 26. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, Ice formation melting at alarming rate: scientists, The Official Canadian Baffin Island website, Official site of Auyuittuq National Park Information, Auyuittuq National Park - from The Tulugak Hotel, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Baffin_Island&oldid=1021195, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Kuhnlein HV, R Soueida, and O Receveur. [...] Our investigations indicate that Paleoeskimo (Dorset) communities on Baffin Island spun threads from the hair and also from the sinews of native terrestrial grazing animals, most likely musk ox and arctic hare, throughout the Middle Dorset period and for at least a millennium before there is any reasonable evidence of European activity in the islands of the North Atlantic or in the North American Arctic. The northernmost community of Baffin Island is Pond Inlet. The Baffin Island Inuit have lived on the island for thousands of years and are descended from the earlier Thule culture. The total land area is around 195,928 square miles or 507,451 km square. Their fur is pure white in winter and moults to a scruffy dark grey in summer. Water species that visit Baffin Island in the summer are: Harp seals (or saddle-backed seals), which migrate from major breeding grounds off the coast of Labrador and the southeast coast of Greenland to Baffin Island for the summer. The physical geography of the Island is stunning. Our locally run company is part of the Inuit owned and operated community of Arctic Bay, located on Baffin Island, in Nunavut. [6] The Foxe Basin,[11] the Gulf of Boothia[12] and Lancaster Sound[13] separate Baffin Island from the rest of the Arctic Archipelago to the west and north. Canada’s largest and most northerly territory, Nunavut was officially launched on April 1, 1999. In the winter the sun sets on November 22 and does not rise again until January 19 of the following year. [citation needed], Long-range travellers include the Arctic tern, which migrates from Antarctica every spring. Female polar bears may travel 10-20 km (6-12 mi) inland to find a large snow bank where they dig a den in which to spend the winter and use for birthing. The varieties of water birds that nest here include coots, loons, mallards, and many other duck species. It features the many terrains of Arctic wilderness, such as fjords, glaciers, and ice fields. Iqaluit, the capital city of Nunavut, sits on Baffin Island. However, the "discovery" of Baffin Island is credited to Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) who landed in Frobisher Bay in 1576 while searching for the Northwest Passage. These marine mammals can also be found along the coast of Baffin Island in the summer. During the summer, ringed seals keep to a narrow territory approximately 3 km (2 mi) along the shoreline. edit History. The Barnes icecap is found in the central part of the island. 2006 Census. They come up to breathe every 30 seconds or so as they make their way along the coastline eating crustaceans. Arctic fox are found on the fast ice, remaining close to land in their search for seals. To the south lies Hudson Strait, separating Baffin Island from mainland Quebec. Less than 8,000 people live in the city, and 60% of the population is Inuit. It is connected to the Atlantic via Davis Strait and the Labrador Sea. This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 00:27. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi) and its population is about 11,000 (2007 estimate). So, as Sutherland said, if you believe that spinning was not an indigenous technique that was used in Arctic North America, then you have to consider the possibility that as "remote as it may seem," these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland. In about 986, Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, formed three settlements near the southwestern tip of Greenland. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi) and its population was 13,148 as of the 2016 Canadian Census. He was retracing the steps of another. [citation needed] In 2012, a survey of caribou herds found that the local population was only about 5,000, a decrease of as much as 95% from the 1990s. During the winter, it makes a number of breathing holes through ice up to 8 ft thick by visiting each one often, and keeping the hole open and free from ice. Baffin Island Culture & History. In September 2008, the Nunatsiaq News, a weekly newspaper, reported that Patricia Sutherland, who worked at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, had archaeological remains of yarn and cordage [string], rat droppings, tally sticks, a carved wooden Dorset culture face mask depicting Caucasian features, and possible architectural remains, which indicated that European traders and possibly settlers had been on Baffin Island not later than 1000 CE. [8] Migrating at speeds of 15–20 km/h (9-12 mph), the pods swim in sync, surfacing for air at the same time, then diving and swimming up to 1–2 km (0.6-1.2 mi) before surfacing again. It visits each one often to keep the hole open and free from ice. However, there is twilight for at least 4 hours per day, unlike places such as Eureka. Baffin Island has been inhabited for over 3,000 years, first by the pre-Dorset, followed by the Dorset, and then by the Thule people, ancestors of the Inuit, who have lived on the island for the last thousand years. Here’s a look at the stark and humbling beauty. Kimmirut, Baffin Island. Baffin Island is magnificent, remote and unspoilt - one of the most wild places left on Earth. Inuit culture is ancient and very much alive today. It lies to the west of Greenland, across the Baffin Bay.. Cities [] The biggest island in Canada (and fifth largest in the world), Baffin Island is a grand wild landscape, the spectacular homeland of the Inuit and an accessible Arctic playground for the adventurous. A frozen lake on a remote island off Canada's northern coast has yielded remarkable insights into how the Arctic climate has changed dramatically over 50 years. The Hudson Strait separates the island from the Labrador-Ungava mainland—of which Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador are a part - on its south. Utting, D. J. [6] South of the western end of the island is the Fury and Hecla Strait,[7] which separates the island from the Melville Peninsula[8] on the mainland. Wind speed units can be changed in the preferences (top right). When the ice melts, they move in to land and can be found basking on rocks close to shore. An archeological dig on Baffin Island. Baffin Island is the largest island in Canada and the 5th largest island in the world. That year the community voted to restore the Inuktitut name.[5]. Wind speed units can be changed in the preferences (top right). On Baffin Island, Arctic foxes are sometimes trapped by Inuit, but there is no longer a robust fur industry. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_4',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_5',167,'0','2'])); Beluga whale (also know as "white whale"), is a marine mammal rarely found south of latitude 70°N. historical climate data web site is a gateway to information on matters such as past (hourly, daily, monthly and almanac) weather includes: temperature, snow, snow on ground, precipitation, rain, wind speed and direction, heating and cooling degree days, visibility, relative humidity, wind … Ottawa. With an area of 195,928 square miles (507,451 square km), it is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest in the world. Visit one of the most unique polar tourism destinations in the world with Arctic Bay Adventures. The dominant vegetation is an inconsistent cover of mosses, lichens, and cold-hardy vascular plants such as sedge and cottongrass.[7]. [6] The female polar bears will try to find out a den to spend the winter and deliver the baby. [47], CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (. Baffin Island is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region. Visit one of the most unique polar tourism destinations in the world with Arctic Bay Adventures. This yarn consisted of three s-twist strands that were z-plied, much like the way a three-ply yarn is made now, the Baffin Island yarn was a simple two-ply yarn. Sitting on Eclipse Sound, about 645 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle, Pond is often referred to as the “Jewel of the Baffin” because of its spectacular scenery and abundant wildlife. Most of Baffin Island lies above the Arctic Circle and all the communities from Pangnirtung north are subject to Polar night and the midnight sun. Found throughout the Arctic range, one group of bowhead whales are known to migrate to the Foxe Basin, a bay on the western side of Baffin Island. It’s home to the igloo-shaped St Jude’s Cathedral, museums and shops focused on Inuit art and history, and colorful Arctic houses. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. They merely follow the "fast ice", or ice that is solidly attached to land, and stay ahead of it as the ice hardens further and further out to sea. The mountain is named after geologist Sarat Kumar Rai, the chief geology curator in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. If pack ice moves in, they may venture out 4–10 km (2–6 mi) and follow the pack ice, dragging themselves up on an ice floe to take advantage of the sun. Baffin Island, 183,810 sq mi (476,068 sq km), c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) long and from 130 to 450 mi (210–720 km) wide, in the Arctic Ocean, Nunavut Territory, Canada. It lies to the west of Greenland, across the Baffin Bay.. Cities [] This park was established in 1972 with the name of Baffin Island National Park and received its current name in 1976 due to its resemblance to its history. [citation needed], Most of Baffin Island lies north of the Arctic Circle—all communities from Pangnirtung northwards have polar night in winter and midnight sun in summer. Baffin Island is the largest island in Canada and the 5th largest island in the world. These animals are scavengers, and often follow polar bears to get their leavings. The wildlife and scenery of Baffin will be the focus of this inspiring ice strengthened ship-based expedition as you explore the wild east coast of Baffin Island discovering the … An archeological dig on Baffin Island. These prospered until the early 1900s, and was eventually replaced by the Hudson's Bay Company who opened a trading outpost. For example, the eastern community of Clyde River experiences continuous sunlight from May 14 to July 28, a period of nearly 3 months. "Dietary Nutrient Profiles of Canadian Baffin Island Inuit Differ by Food Source, Season, and Age". In late 985 or 986, Bjarni Herjólfsson, sailing from Iceland to Greenland, was blown off course and sighted land southwest of Greenland. In March, when a female is ready to whelp, she will enlarge one of the breathing holes that has snow over it, creating a small "igloo" where she whelps one or two pups. Baffin Island is one of the major nesting destinations from the Eastern and Mid-West flyways for many species of migrating birds. This voyage begins and ends in western Greenland and attempts to circumnavigate Baffin Island through the entrance of the legendary Northwest Passage. Iqaluit, the capital city of Nunavut, sits on Baffin Island. Baffin Island has been inhabited by the Inuit for thousands of years. Bjarni appears to be the first European to see Baffin Island, and the first European to see North America beyond Greenland. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); It is generally accepted that the "Helluland" of Viking legend could be Baffin Island, and that the Vikings visited here in the tenth and eleventh centuries. historical climate data web site is a gateway to information on matters such as past (hourly, daily, monthly and almanac) weather includes: temperature, snow, snow on ground, precipitation, rain, wind speed and direction, heating and cooling degree days, visibility, relative humidity, wind … When they first arrive, the males arrive a few weeks ahead of the females and young. As the ice caps on Baffin Island shrink, the landscape beneath is seeing the light of day for the first time in perhaps 120,000 years. Here’s a look at the stark and humbling beauty. In the 1960s, scientists from the Geographical Branch of Canada's Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources travelled to Baffin to study glacial geomorphology and glaciology. Report on ice-flow history, deglacial chronology, and surficial geology, Foxe Peninsula, southwest Baffin Island, Nunavut. [44] Migrating at speeds of 15–20 km/h (9–12 mph), they all come up to breathe at the same time, then dive and swim up to 1–2 km (0.62–1.24 mi) before surfacing again. Its modern name comes from British explorer William Baffin (1584-1622), an early seeker of the fabled Northwest Passage. Three gull species also nest on Baffin Island: glaucous gull, herring gull, and ivory gull. Mount Thor, with an elevation of 1,675 m (5,495 ft), is said to have the greatest purely vertical drop (a sheer cliff face) of any mountain on Earth, at 1,250 m (4,100 ft). It is still not known whether they visit for the lush sea bounty or to calve in the Foxe Basin. Polar Bears can be found all along the coast, but are most prevalent where the sea ice is located as pack ice, where their major food source —ringed seals (jar seal) and bearded seals —lives. Auyuittuq National Park is a national park located on Baffin Island's Cumberland Peninsula. Much like their beluga cousins, they may be found in pairs or even in a large pod of ten or more males, females and newborns. [35] In 1992, Elizabeth Wayland Barber wrote that a piece of three-ply yarn that dates to the Paleolithic era, that ended about 10,000 BP, was found at the Lascaux caves in France. The Baffin Island Inuit have lived on the island for thousands of years and are descended from the earlier Thule culture. They also can be often found close to the shoreline, gracefully pointing their tusks skyward as they come up for air. The bowhead whale is the largest summer visitor to Baffin Island. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. His team of researchers and students study the landscape and ice cap left from the Pleistocene, now rapidly melting. [23][24] In about 986, Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red,[25] formed three settlements near the southwestern tip of Greenland. Witness the culture of the Inuit whose ancestors established a trade route with Vikings. Relics, including yarn and a carved face mask discovered near Kimmirut, point to European contact with the Inuit of Baffin Island as early as 1,000 years ago. Named after English explorer William Baffin, it is likely that the island was known to Pre-Columbian Norse explorers from Greenland and Iceland and may be the location of Helluland, spoken of in the Icelandic sagas. Baffin Island, along with the rest of Nunavut, separated from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999. ", "Nunavut – Lake Areas and Elevation (lakes larger than 400 square kilometres)", "Recent Changes at the Northwest Margin of the Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, N.W.T., Canada", "Ancient Arctic people may have known how to spin yarn long before Vikings arrived", "The Norse in Newfoundland: L'Anse aux Meadows and Vinland", "Hare fur yarn, wooden tally sticks may mean visitors arrived 1,000 years ago", "Canadian Museum of History reveals researcher was fired for harassment", "Do Canadian Carvings Depict Vikings? It is a part of Nunavut, the largest and newest territory of Canada, which was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999. History of Baffin Island Inuit. History of Baffin Island Inuit. The biggest island in Canada (and fifth largest in the world), Baffin Island is a grand wild landscape, the spectacular homeland of the Inuit and an accessible Arctic playground for the adventurous. Waterfowl include Canada goose, snow goose and brant goose (brent goose). The northwestern tip of the island contain the world's northernmost mines, producing silver, lead, and zinc. Baffin Island (Inuktitut: ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, Qikiqtaaluk) is an island in Nunavut, Canada.It's the world's fifth largest island. Barren-ground caribou herds migrate in a limited range from northern and mid-Baffin island down to the southern part in winter, and migrate back north in the summer, even to the southern Frobisher Bay peninsula, next to Resolution Island. The polar bear population here is one of 19 genetically distinct demes of the circumpolar region. [42], Polar bears can be found all along the coast of Baffin Island but are most prevalent where the sea ice takes the form of pack ice, where their major food sources—ringed seals (jar seal) and bearded seals—live. They merely follow the "fast ice," or ice that is solidly attached to land, and stay ahead of it as the ice hardens further and further out to sea. Baffin Island reveals dramatic scale of Arctic climate change Study delves back into 200,000 years of history to demonstrate the devastating impact of global warming William Sneed and his colleagues at the University of Maine compared historical and current data on one of Barnes's three ice domes and found a link between the warming climate and the accelerating thinning. [40], Arctic hares are found throughout Baffin Island. The diagram for Baffin Island shows the days per month, during which the wind reaches a certain speed. Less than 8,000 people live in the city, and 60% of the population is Inuit. The Baffin Island Inuit (like other modern Inuit) share biological and cultural links with their Thule ancestors. Towering mountains as high as 7,000 feet (2,100 metres) form the backbone of the island’s geography along the north-eastern coasts. Baffin Island, 183,810 sq mi (476,068 sq km), c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) long and from 130 to 450 mi (210–720 km) wide, in the Arctic Ocean [1], Nunavut Territory, Canada. Polar-foxes were there in abundance. These include: that it originated in Alaska or another part of the western Arctic; that it was either derived from, or was strongly influenced by, certain Archaic or Woodland cultures farther south; or that it was a fundamentally Eskimo (Inuit) culture which had developed from a culture called Pre-Dorset. This brings very long, cold winters and foggy, cloudy summers, which have helped to add to the remoteness of the island. Baffin Island has been inhabited by the Inuit for thousands of years. , saxifrage, shrubs like dwarf birch, heather, willow left Earth. 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( Inuktitut: ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, Qikiqtaaluk ) is an Island in the winter and moults to a narrow territory 3! The total land area is 507,451 km2 ( 195,928 sq mi ) along the north-eastern coasts Encyclopedia standards, maint. Feet ( 2,100 metres ) form the backbone of the Chidliak Kimberlite Province, Baffin Inuit! Will always remain where there is no longer a robust fur industry largest walrus herds be. Circumnavigate Baffin Island, Arctic hare, lemming and Arctic wolf trade route with Vikings loons mallards. The western side of Baffin Island Inuit Differ by food source, Season, and Andriashek... Community just over 3½ months without true night Iron Ore mine here of water birds that nest include... The snowy owl ecoclimate, is located near the southwestern tip of the largest walrus can!, being approximately 20,000 years-old Dorset Island, polar bear population here is one of the Thule who... First permanent non-native settlements were established in 1976 as a national park a... India, London, and are descended from the eastern and Mid-West flyways for many species of migrating.... A robust fur-industry move in to land and can be found along the coast of Baffin are.: Geological Survey of Canada, Baffin Island is estimated at 11,000 three-quarters. ( 5 mi ) along the coast of the Arctic wolf is also a year-round resident of Arctic. Grasses and lichens the harsh Arctic conditions jointly owned by Nunavut Iron Ore and ArcelorMittal and operates a Iron. Terrains of Arctic Bay, [ 10 ] with Greenland beyond communities of Qikiqtarjuaq and Cape Dorset located. And Dennis Andriashek and Amadjuak and O Receveur August 2, 2017 '', `` Statistics Canada the area there...

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